This brief examines a surprising dichotomy: why do Israel’s elderly have the second lowest poverty rates in terms of market income, but the highest poverty rates in terms of disposable income relative to the other OECD countries?
Posts Tagged ‘employment’
Demographic forecasts point to a sharp rise in the percentage of older Israelis over the coming years. It is unclear to what extent the country’s social security and pension systems are prepared for this change. This chapter looks at the changes that occurred in the employment patterns and economic status of Israel’s older adults between 2001 and 2011.
This chapter sheds new light on several central issues concerning the integration of Haredim in the labor market, and in particular the relationship between education and employment and wages in the Haredi sector.
This chapter examines educational opportunity and the changing relationship between education, employment, and income in Israel between 1995 and 2008. The following questions are addressed: Did the expansion of the Israeli education system during this period contribute to more equal educational opportunity among socioeconomic groups? And did the returns to education, in terms of income and occupational prestige, increase or decrease?
This chapter looks at changes that have taken place in Israel’s female labor force over the past 30 years, with a focus on education and its impact on women’s labor force involvement. Education plays a major role in explaining women’s labor force participation patterns as well as the changes that have occurred both in women’s economic activity and in the composition of the labor force.
Israel has relatively low employment rates and those who are employed work more hours than is common in the West – but produce less per hour. Hence, average Israeli incomes are lower than would be expected given the country’s innovative ability.
The results of this study indicate that much of the wage disparities in Israel are due to unobserved factors rather than to observable characteristics. They also lead to some policy-relevant insights about the links between schooling, ethnic minorities and wages.
Israel is characterized by exceptionally low employment rates of men and by high wage gaps amongst the working population. The conclusion is that employment gaps and wage gaps in Israel are, to a large degree, correlated with education. The skills that workers with no more than 12 years of schooling have do not allow them to integrate in a satisfactory way into the modern labor market.
In 2012, the Central Bureau of Statistics began to conduct its labor force surveys in a new way: the central differences were major changes in the sampling and a move from a quarterly to a monthly survey. The change brought about some significant differences in the data.
A Taub Center study reveals that based on a new methodology for studying the labor force recently introduced by Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics, unemployment among Arab Israelis is much higher than previous thought.
This appears as a chapter in the Center’s annual publication State of the Nation Report – Society, Economy and Policy 2010.
In Israel, a lesser share of people work than is common in the West. Those who are employed work more hours a week than do workers in most other OECD countries while the country’s average standard of living is lower than in the majority of OECD countries.
Israel has experienced a marked increase in the share of poor families headed by an employed person. The rise in the working poor has been to a large extent concentrated among Arab Israelis. The high rate of working poor among Arab Israelis reflects a challenging combination of disadvantages.
The influx of foreign workers is closely correlated with widespread non-employment among less-educated Arab Israeli men.
Rising education gaps underlie rising Israeli wage gaps that are amongst the highest in the West.
The process of economic growth greatly increases the demand for educated and skilled workers. This has a substantial and increasingly negative impact on the incomes and the employment chances of the less educated.
Israel’s minimum wage is among the highest in the West, but lawmakers want to raise it further. On the other hand, the country’s negative income tax is very low compared to the United States
While unemployment appears to have reached average Western levels, the more relevant concept for Israel is “non-employment.” Among Israeli men, rates of non-employment have risen far above those of advanced Western countries.
Male non-employment rates among prime working age Israelis have risen over the past 30 years – tripling among haredi (ultra-Orthodox) and nearly doubling among Israel Arabs and non-haredi Jews.
In the OECD and in Israel, female non-employment rates have fallen over the past 30 years – except among haredi (ultra-orthodox) Jewish women.
In 30 years, 78% of Israel’s primary school students will be haredi or Arabs, and only 14% will be in the non-religious State school system – if the trends of the past decade continue.
Gaps in rates of male non-employment between the OECD average and non-ultra-Orthodox Jews, ultra-Orthodox Jews and Israeli Arabs in Israel are very high – and much greater than they were three decades ago.
When it comes to producing ideas, Israeli inventors are pushing the frontiers of human knowledge at a faster clip than any other country.
Differentiating between the sensitivity of income inequality to male income and female income, we find that total income inequality is less sensitive to female income variability or the level of female income than to male income variability or the level of male income. Decomposing inequality by income determinants, we find that uniform increases in education [...]
This paper presents a unique approach to the policies of minimum wage and negative income tax. The influence of these policies is examined with regard to two population groups – younger and older members of the labor force. Recommendations regarding differential application of the policies are presented.
The original paper appeared in the annual social economic report for 2004.
In Hebrew only.
Interim report of a comparative project on Sticking Together: Challenges Confronting Pluralistic Societies, jointly with Brookings Institution and The Australian National University. In Hebrew only
This paper appeared in the Center’s annual social economic report 1998.
In Hebrew only.
This paper appeared in the Center’s annual social economic report for 1996. An English version is available.
This paper appeared in the Center’s annual social economic report 1988-1989. An English version is available.
This paper appears in the Center’s annual social economic report 1986-1987 in the Special Issues section. An English version is available.
In Hebrew only